who is henry louis gates related to

And I don't know if that ruined your sports career forever, but it affected your leg forever. He was there in exile because he had been in prison and to be offering civil war for 27 months and was given a fellowship at the University of Cambridge. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at www.npr.org for further information. Like I said earlier, family history books can vary widely from one genealogist to the next. There he found that he shared 10 of the 11 DNA matches with offspring of Niall of the Nine Hostages, the fourth century warlord who created one of the dominant strains of Irish genealogy because he had so many offspring. Finding Your Roots is partnered with the genealogy company Ancestry.com, which recently found in a survey that most people (over 50%) know more about fictional TV families like the Roys in Succession, than they do about their own family history. After another successful round with African American Lives 2, with Chris Rock, Morgan Freeman, Maya Angelou and more, Gates Jr. was given an instruction by PBS. GROSS: I've interviewed many people over the years. All rights reserved. A team of geneticists at Trinity College led by professor Dan Bradley have discovered that as many as 3 million men worldwide may be descendents of the Irish warlord, who was the Irish "High King" at Tara, the ancient center of Ireland from A.D. 379 to A.D. 405. So you GATES: Because of this white man. If youve found this blog post helpful, please consider buying me a coffee to say thanks. GATES: Terry Gross speechless - first time in 35 years. John Lithgow and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. are DNA cousins! PBS says it's now delaying the airing of new episodes until it can improve editorial oversight. And the only reason that I started making the series that became "Finding Your Roots" is because of that obituary and that photograph. Henry Louis Gates Jr. doesn't seem too worried about "critical race theory" or "white fragility" or "woke warriors" or any of those ridiculous buzzwords . Some books have a lot of pictures, while others have zero or very few images. You don't get $1,400 by saving your nickels and dimes as a slave, right? I know, those are some of my favorite reveals on the show, too. And at the time, the airwaves were so segregated, they only put black films on "The Late Late Show." said Henry Louis Gates Jr. "Encarta Africana 2000 is a captivating and engaging resource that can educate students of all ages." Within its 3,600 articles, the latest version includes new information and multimedia features that will allow students to learn even more about African culture and history. African-Americans all think that they're a descendant from a Native American. The largest single event explicitly tied to race in the way it was covered during the year was the arrest on July 16, 2009 of Gates, who was mistakenly suspected of trying to break in to his own home. My mother would say, tell them about your brother who's a dentist. And I think that that's sad. The blog walks you through how to evaluate a genealogists resume, potential red flags, and tips for where to find qualified professionals online. Accuracy and availability may vary. And I cluster more toward the Yoruba than any - because 50 percent GATES: Of my ancestry is from sub-Saharan Africa. This warlord was responsible for the very common Irish surname "O'Neill" -- which means "descendant son of Niall." So I thought that I had a pretty good chance. For tips, you can check out my three-part series of blog posts about How to Find a Professional Genealogist. And he mustered in in Winchester, Va., on Christmas Day, 1778, and was mustered down the Continental Army in April of 1784. And GATES: Yeah. GATES: And think about it. - like the Aunt Jemima figure. Does race exist? And they fought in the Revolutionary War. Wrong username or password. Gates accused the arresting officer, who is white, of . Historian and African American Studies professor Gates Jr. has hosted a number of genealogy shows in the past, but Finding Your Roots on PBS has proved his most popular yet. Yeah. Here to talk about the controversy is NPR TV critic, Eric Deggans. Would you do it? DAVIES: Henry Louis Gates spoke with Terry Gross before a live audience in Philadelphia last May. But one story not told to most Irish elementary schoolchildren was of Niall's prolificacy. Related Articles Around the Web. I don't think that's true for very many people in this room or any - or many people who are watching this show. The Life Summary of Henry Louis. Why book banning is back in 2022 - Vox . And she burst into tears because she used to read me that book all the time. WAYNE, N.J. Henry Louis Gates Sr., 97, formerly a resident of Cumberland and Piedmont, W.Va., died peacefully on Christmas Eve, 2010, in Wayne, at home with his family gathered at his bedside. Some genealogists even offer digital or e-book options! He is a Trustee of the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Old photographs are usually kept in families and passed down through the generations, so family albums and attics are the most logical place to look for them. If so, youre in luck! One way of comparing research reports and family history books is to imagine a car: A research report is like the cars engine. I've been looking all over Africa and I couldn't find anybody, so I ended up here. . Help me understand why this matters. GATES: And then there was "The Late Late Show." ", When Brian Cox comes on #FindingYourRoots to find out his real familys #SuccessionJoin us tomorrow night on @PBS at 8/7c for an all new episode of Finding Your Roots with guests Brian Cox and @ViolaDavis! He went to Trinity College in Dublin to have his DNA analyzed. GROSS: Do you know - do you want to know your medical DNA? Also, journalist Brian Palmer talks about how slavery and the Civil War are described at Confederate historic sites in the South. And I make it every week over and over with "Finding Your Roots.". And when they analyzed my mitochondrial DNA, it went to England. Ironically, James Crowley, whose name in Gaelic means "hardy warrior," is also descended from the same line as Gates, having very close links to Niall of the Nine Hostages. But we have a disproportionately higher risk of sickle cell. All that was on still in 1965 in syndication. JustWatch. DEGGANS: Well, I'm not really sure. He is an American professor, historian, filmmaker, and literary critic. Season 9 of "Finding Your Roots" on PBS has seen actors Danny Trejo and Julia Roberts discover more about their family history. She was quite a lady. GROSS: I think they're doing it through records and not through, like, secretly getting their blood samples. . You have to get permission. And the average African-American has less than 1 percent Native American ancestry, but they have 24 percent European ancestry. Listen 9:01. GATES: That was one of the happiest days of my life when my brother went to dental school. HENRY LOUIS GATES: Well, let's see what we found on your mom's side of the family. CORNISH: Finally Eric, help me out here. Discover Henry Louis Gates Jr.'s Biography, Age, Height, Physical Stats, Dating/Affairs, Family and career updates. Genealogy for Henry Louis Gates, Sr. (1913 - 2010) family tree on Geni, with over 240 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. Henry Louis Gates Jr. 0:30. GROSS: And then your slightly more contemporary ancestors not having any rights in the country, you know, or very few rights - not being able to vote, having to live in segregation. Where does your nickname Skip come from? I have a couple black friends - I went to Yale with Ben Carson and with Ben's wife. Affleck himself posted an apology on Facebook, saying that he'd talked to Gates about these changes, but the process was, quote, "collaborative." "And I go, 'What? She paid cash for that house in what was largely a white neighborhood. For $50,000, they sequenced my father, me and then 12 of the guests who were in "Faces Of America" - not a full genome but a dense genotyping. When youre comparing professional genealogists, it is helpful to read their other writing. GATES: Well, I think that you should have the right to - you have to ask someone. Please try again. If youre a celebrity or public figure, then probably yes! Lucy was the daughter of Lou Isaac Clifford and Elizabeth Jane Redman. A plaque was unveiled in Cambridge in honour of Crummell and two other black pioneers: Gloria Carpenter . A family history book can also be expensive, as weve covered, so its worth doing your research to find the best genealogist for your project. NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by an NPR contractor. My mother used to read me - the greatest book ever written to me was "The Poky Little Puppy," right? And my father would just make up stories and tell my brother and me. And I wanted to be from them. A family history book typically displays the conclusions about your family history, without overly emphasizing what went into reaching those conclusions. And my brother went off to dental school. Jeff Daniels sits with "Finding Your Roots" host Henry Louis Gates Jr. in an episode from Season 9 on PBS. But the ancestry is being investigated against the will of the people being outed. well-spoken characters in his father's tales actually existed and were related to him." view all Henry Louis Gates, Sr.'s Timeline. GATES: But then they did another special test. Well, that might be related to police excesses and abuses, but it's a far end of the . To be clear, I don't work for Finding Your Roots; I'm just a professional genealogist who knows people who have worked on the show and I was present for the filming of an episode. His expertise and experience eventually led him to TV, where he started working as a contributor, narrator and host of a number of history shows, before he eventually worked on the PBS miniseries African American Lives. GATES: I said, thank God. "It was so popular that PBS said, 'nah, you gotta cut white people in on this,'" Gates Jr. laughed. What percent would be Native American? After that, everything stopped. My mother was a seamstress, as you know. It is also the name of Irish pubs all over the world. As we honor the memory of Dr. Martin Luther King today, we're going to listen to an interview Terry recorded with historian Henry Louis Gates. And I gave it to her for birthday. Related lists from IMDb users. Listen 9:01. GROSS: (Laughter) So I want to change the subject a little bit. Birth of Henry Louis Gates, Sr. So, your real-life family history book might resemble a novel or coffee-table book, rather than a scrapbook like those on the program. You can read more about genealogists specialties in my blog post on the subject. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Henry Louis Gate was born on September 16, 1950, in Keyser, W.Va. Thank you. And I hope they are. The story of Niall of the Nine Hostages is already the stuff of legend, which has been passed on to countless Irish schoolchildren over the years. The researchers also found that as many as one in 12 men in Ireland have the same DNA as the Irish king -- and in Ireland's northwest, that figure rises to one in five. Was this an equal sexual relationship? DEGGANS: Well, PBS has insisted on some changes. Published February 4, 2023 at 5:25 PM EST. When I was a boy, I was closer to my mother than my father. Henry Louis "Skip" Gates, Jr. (born September 16, 1950) is an author, documentary filmmaker, essayist, and literary critic. GATES: Yeah. 825 Eighth Avenue, New York, NY 10019, WNET is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Become a member of THIRTEEN ($5 monthly or $60 annually) and get access to THIRTEEN Passport as our thanks for your support. I love you being black. Henry Louis Gates Jr. was born on 16 September, 1950 in Keyser, West Virginia, United States, is an American professor. 1104, certified through 10 November 2023. guide for finding a professional genealogist. Books can take a long time to produce, so make sure youre clear on the timeline and payment schedule. And he, and you, the officer and Joe Biden sat down, had a beer or two. Published February 4, 2023 at 1:25 PM AKST. Emmy and Peabody Award-winning filmmaker, literary scholar, journalist, cultural critic, and institution builder, Professor Gates has published numerous books and produced and . Henry Louis Gates Jr. addressing a class at Harvard in 1996. . . Copyright 2015 NPR. GROSS: Yeah. When I did Morgan Freeman's family tree, it was obvious through his DNA that he was descended from a white man who was an overseer on a plantation in Mississippi. The research for the stories on Finding Your Roots is completed by a team of people, including several professional genealogists who specialize in different subject areas, such as genetic genealogy. After Ben Affleck Scandal, PBS Postpones 'Finding Your Roots'. Or they stayed home, and they listened to or played music. She was smart and she went to college, which was unusual for a woman in that era. GROSS: Totally stunned. I mean, like, my - I'm second-generation American. GATES: Otherwise they wouldn't be in a database. And we know from the analysis of my DNA that goes back to Ireland. But I saw that photograph and read her obituary on the day that we buried my father's father, Edward St. Lawrence Gates. He is a Trustee of the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by an NPR contractor. GATES: Maybe for Christmas, OK, that's fine (laughter). And I sat down. Henry Louis Gates Jr. was born Sept. 16, 1950, in Keyser, W.Va. His father worked at the local paper mill during the day and as a janitor at a telephone company at night. ", The lesson of "Finding Your Roots" - we're all immigrants. As host of the PBS series Finding Your Roots, Gates tells celebrities about their family history. Brian Cox's family history in Scotland is investigated by host Henry Louis Gates Jr. on a Season 9 episode of "Finding Your Roots. It's a horrible way to start, in a way. And I couldn't imagine what, but two sets of those fourth great-grandparents are from my mother's line. GATES: He wasn't even out the door, and I moved into his bedroom. 2. 799. It was during Winfrey's investigation that Gates Jr. discovered the potential of the show's format. They spoke in front of an audience last May when Gates received WHYY's annual Lifelong Learning Award. "A white man who slept with a black slave. The Arrest of Henry Louis Gates, Jr. By Emily Guskin, Mahvish Shahid Khan and Amy Mitchell. If you remember, it was called "African-American Lives." Strangely enough, he and the Cambridge, Mass., police officer who arrested him, Sgt. If my areas of expertise do not align with your needs, check out my guide for finding a professional genealogist. Jeff Daniels sits with "Finding Your Roots" host Henry Louis Gates Jr. in an episode from Season 9 on PBS. "We were able to give him his grandfather's heroism and nobility back, that's just such a great feeling." Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates has apologized after PBS found he violated their editorial standards. GROSS: You had family that passed for white. And the last thing I did before I went to bed was - we always had a desk in our bedrooms and had a bookcase. This is . Family history books can vary widely from one genealogist to the next, but they may resemble chapter- or coffee-table books with sections devoted to your ancestors. I asked a PBS representative that question many times, and she would only repeat back the language that's from this statement. He is the host of the PBS television series "Finding Your . The show proved so successful, it was continued in various guises before eventually developing into Finding Your Roots. GATES: And, you know, what's even more amazing, it's - one, it was my mother's third great grandfather - my fourth great grandfather. The conclusions wouldnt exist without research, citations, and analysis, but those structural underpinnings arent emphasized the way that they are in a research report. GATES: And because it was PBS, we negotiated a deal with this company Illumina which sequences everybody. So everybody who showed up on this continent is from someplace else. And when this little girl's passing for - she passes for white and breaks her mother's heart. No one's ever asked me that, but the answer's yes because I studied with a person who has been on your show, Wole Soyinka, the Nigerian playwright, when I went to the University of Cambridge. Even the Native Americans came from someplace else about 16,000 years ago. They want to see how that pans out as they do the show. July 23, 2009 / 7:43 AM / CBS. And it turned out - my father used to say, you know, your mother's family is really distinguished, too? And by in traction, I mean on my back with my foot up with weights. He introduced the notion of signifyin' to represent African and African American literary and musical history as a continuing reflection and reinterpretation of what has come before. The words Certified Genealogist and its acronym, CG, are registered certification marks of the Board for Certification of Genealogists, used under license by authorized associates following peer-reviewed competency evaluations. And that imprinted this woman's story in my mind. Race is a social construction. She loved nicknames (my brother Paul Edward is Rocky). In such works as Figures in Black (1987) and The Signifying Monkey (1988) he has used the term signifyin . As of 2014, he has written seventeen books and created thirteen . So I want to read something that you wrote about her. Africa's Great Civilizations | show | 2017 | Official Trailer. Finding Your Roots debuted on PBS on March 25, 2012, and has now been running for nine seasons. 'The Simpsons' Brings Henry Louis Gates Jr.'s 'Finding Your Roots' to Springfield (EXCLUSIVE) Variety - Michael Schneider 2d There have been a lot of TV crossover episodes over the years, but this may be the most unique one yet: PBS' "Finding Your Roots" and host Dr. Henry So it was just the two of us and my mom, right? And she was a beautiful woman. It was a horrible, horrible thing. 2023 WNET. A professional genealogist is the person who will build your family tree using records youre familiar with from the show, like censuses and vital records. They had a medical doctor who specializes in sharing this information. GATES: And we - they only put - remember "The Late Show"? GROSS: But you had family that passed for white. GATES: Yeah, I was 15 years old. 24/7 coverage of breaking news and live events. He couldn't hear me, couldn't see me. GROSS: And I read you talking about this. They came in slave ships. GROSS: It has been a great honor to speak with you. But then President Obama called you both together. HENRY LOUIS GATES: Well, let's see what we found on your mom's side of the family. Copyright 2019 NPR. Henry Louis Gates is an American literary critic, historian, professor, filmmaker, and public intellectual. "militia" and "Native Guard" which all seem "soldier related" even if inaccurate. I hope you never come back, you know? What do you think of that? GROSS: So when you had your DNA done, did you have a wish for a certain area of Africa or a certain group of African people who you wanted to be your ancestors? You know, we used to say tribe, but now that's not politically correct - so the Yoruba ethnic group in Western Nigeria. I regret we are out of time. Every reveal [on Finding Your Roots] is another chapter in world history. Carlos Figueroa. You might have breast cancer. And I learned a lot about the medium. On the PBS series, Gates visits Trinity College to find his roots, and says to the genealogist, "Do I look like an Irishman to you? Listen to National Gallery of Art panel discussions featuring Image of the Black series editors David Bindman and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., as well as HUP editor Sharmila Sen: Part I | Part II | Part III; In conjunction with Harvard's Du Bois Institute, The Root hosted an "Image of the Week" series featuring art from the Image of the Black archive. On Finding Your Roots, researchers may spend upwards of 100 hours or more on a single guests tree and DNA analysis combined (or so Ive heard). (Preston Crawley) "I love being in Utah because I love genealogy," Henry Louis Gates Jr. said as he addressed BYU . GROSS: But you also wanted to know who were your African ancestors. The short answer is that genealogical research is charged by the hour, and research like that on Finding Your Roots takes a lot of hours. They flew him in from San Francisco. Henry Louis Gates Jr. reveals that he and John Lithgow are DNA cousins. The map below shows the places where the ancestors of the famous person lived. GATES: Right after the Beer Summit, it all went away. Now you can get a full sequence for less than $5,000 - some people say $1,000 or $2,000. But I think that you should have to get permission before someone is creeping around in your DNA. They had two geneticists. This kind of research has been especially important for African-Americans whose ancestors had their names and families taken away when they were enslaved. Finding Your Roots airs weekly on Tuesdays on PBS. They had kids, and they're buried next to each other. African American Studies scholar Henry Louis Gates Jr. was born in Keyser, West Virginia on September 16, 1950, the son of Henry Louis Gates Sr. and Pauline Augusta Coleman. For privacy reasons, it is not usually possible to get a sample of an entire book. We're listening to the interview Terry recorded with Harvard historian, author and filmmaker Henry Louis Gates before an audience at WHYY in Philadelphia last May. But maybe youre thinking, But Im not here for a research report. GROSS: So given this kind of really rich mix that you've just described and all the surprises that you've just described, what does race mean to you? 1. Join half a million readers enjoying Newsweek's free newsletters, Watch: Ed Norton reacts to slave-owning ancestors in "Finding Your Roots". Emmy Award-winning filmmaker, literary scholar, journalist, cultural critic and institution builder, Professor Gates has authored 17 books and created 14 documentary films . And she throws herself on the casket. The Academy looks forward to presenting the award in person, when circumstances allow for a safe and celebratory occasion to honor the imagination and impact of Henry Louis Gates Jr. Update: The Academy presented the award at an in-person event in April 2022 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He loved the news. And when I was a young teenager, early adolescence, my father and I connected through the news. Millions of Irish Americans, especially those in New York, may be directly descended, like Gates, from Niall of the Nine Hostages, the most prolific warrior in Irish history. He co-wrote Lincoln on Race and Slavery, with Donald Yacovone (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009). Henry Louis Gates, (born Sept. 16, 1950, Keyser, W.Va., U.S.), U.S. critic and scholar. GATES: And then when they did my admixture, I'm 50 percent sub-Saharan African and 50 percent European and virtually no Native American ancestry, which really pisses my family off. PBS. And the black woman says all she wants is enough money to have a New Orleans-type funeral. You might have prostate cancer that runs in your family. ", Everyone Practices Cancel Culture | Opinion, Deplatforming Free Speech is Dangerous | Opinion. Henry Louis Gates Jr. hosts the program, butas I understand ithe does not do the research into the guests family histories himself. Gates attended Yale University and the University of Cambridge. And the DNA tests we were doing at that time - when they analyzed my Y DNA, it went to Ireland. Well talk with Gates about the process of finding . But I think that Donald Trump's rhetoric and some of his actions - for instance, after Charlottesville - encourage unfavorable race relations in the United States. Greg Moore, Arizona Republic. And then they'll make their decision on when they're going to schedule the third season and if they're going to do a fourth season. He married Pauline Augusta Coleman. And I have my mother's certificate from this vocational school where she learned to be a seamstress. That indicates that they do them regularly, which is a positive sign. I'm Dave Davies in for Terry Gross. James Crowley, who was responding to a 911 caller's report of men breaking and entering the residence. Off. Not all genealogists do, so youll want to look for someone who has books listed in their services. I love my mother, and I love my nickname. There are no review sites like Yelp for genealogists, so it can be tough to know where to start. That's the way it is. The fifth season of "Finding Your Roots" is currently showing on PBS. By Henry Louis Gates Jr. Dr. Gates is the director of the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard. The Bondwomans Narrative by Hannah Crafts, edited by Henry Louis Gates, has just been published (Warner Books). And I'm wondering if being laid up from an injury for a while affected your desire to - and your time to immerse yourself in books. Maria Hinojosa's Great-Great-Grandfather Was a Railway CEO. But when I started the series, it wasn't called "Finding Your Roots." After a break, he'll talk about his childhood and about how DNA evidence demonstrates there's no such thing as racial purity. Some people get really excited about what goes on under the hood, but some peoples eyes glaze over a bit. One, dated Saturday, January 7, 1888, was from the Cumberland Evening Times. (SOUNDBITE OF ALLEN TOUSSAINT'S "EGYPTIAN FANTASY"). That's not the way it was. And when my grandparents came as immigrants, my family was able to assimilate pretty easily because we're white. And they have a horse-drawn carriage. The headline read " DEATH OF 'AUNT JANE GATES ' ": Last night at 11 o'clock "Aunt Jane Gates," colored, a . Henry Louis Gates Jr. Family. GATES: I'll never - I love you, Mama. So I'm telling this story over and over of my - of rediscovering my own lost roots. You said that after - you had been getting death threats and these angry emails and everything. In 1970, he received a fellowship from Yale that would allow him to work and travel in Africa. Coming up, journalist Brian Palmer talks about how slavery and the Civil War are described at Confederate historic sites in the South. Things change. The fifth season of Gates' TV series "Finding Your Roots" is now running on PBS. "I've been in school since August 31 1956, when I started first grade, I've never left school," Gates Jr. said. So we went - my father showed us that picture and that obituary, and we went home. Professor Gates is the director of the Hutchins Center for African and African-American Research at Harvard and has produced numerous books and documentaries about African-American history. GROSS: Is that too personal? Maria Hinojosas Great-Great-Grandfather Was a Railway CEO, Maria Hinojosa Discovers Her Ancestor Founded a City, John Lithgows Family Fled The Dominican Republic. Gates Jr. explained how mitochondrial DNA, inherited from the female ancestry line, doesn't change. GROSS: Whoa. GROSS: When you were 14, you had a football injury. We wanted to see what more we could tell Ben Affleck about the roots of his family's interest in social justice. And he'd make a couple - a move. GATES: They don't do that anymore for this particular kind of - I had a broken hip. If youd like to get an idea about what its like working with a particular genealogist, read their testimonials or reviews. That's a long time when you're young. It's a gift - and for my mom. What percent would be from Europe? PBS has delayed scheduling the show's third season. Combining family tree records with DNA genealogy technology, he initially pitched the show as "Alex Haley in a test tube" (Haley was the author of Roots: The Saga of an American Family). And there were a lot of people who voted for Donald Trump as a repudiation vote. Gates Jr. added, "Oprah just broke down and cried in the middle of the shoot. This is FRESH AIR. Famed Harvard University Professor Henry Louis 'Skip' Gates Jr. got a major surprise when he started researching his own ancestry - in his . And our family - my cousin, Johnny Gates (ph), still owns that house to this day. You may yet have your own Bernie Sanders-style moment of genealogy-fueled surprise in the near future (though I cant say whether itll be because youre related to Larry David). Henry Louis Gates, Jr. is a popular and revered scholar who has written many acclaimed books and made many acclaimed documentaries about black history (and was also forced to drink a beer with the . The companion book to Henry Louis Gates, Jr.'s PBS series, And Still I Risea timeline and chronicle of the past fifty years of black history in the U.S. in more than 350 photos. In my experience, cousins are usually more receptive to requests for pictures from known family members (as opposed to friendly but unfamiliar genealogists). (PBS, 2019), and the related books, Dark Sky Rising: Reconstruction and the Dawn of Jim Crow, with Tonya Bolden (Scholastic, 2019), and Stony the Road: Reconstruction, White . Family history books are most similar to the Books of Life featured on the show, so Ill be talking about them here. - like the Bible says? And my mother used to write the eulogies, the obituaries for all the black people in the Potomac Valley, where I grew up. It's - remember, it's - my father dragged my brother and me upstairs in his parents' home and made us wait why he'd look through half a dozen of his father's scrapbooks, about which we knew nothing - complete mystery, a secret to us - looking for that obituary. Henry Louis Gates is married to a white woman. We'd spit in a test tube. ron cook carry on films, claudia benton west university address,

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